COSMOGENY: ORDER OUT OF CHAOS:
COSMOS appears to be the harmony that emerges from disturbances in CHAOS, which is itself potential ORDER --and we seem to need to believe that (primordial) chaos is somehow subordinated to order: That one is the evolutionary successor of the other, that this succession is natural or was caused by god: The universe is predictable and we are thereby empowered: the universe is ORDERLY and its laws generally applicable. (But what are the exceptions?)
LOGOS represents this order --it is the WORD at the heart of science and religion.
Originally, Logos referred to "laws of nature" --fixed rules which create an order in the universe; he believed that the universe was rational and that its laws were knowable-- rather than a random, chaotic, erratic universe at the mercy of capricious gods that could be swayed by human prayer. But a generation or two later, Heraclitus (535-475 BC), used the term "LOGOS to represent the rational principle according to which the world was created. (the Greek "logos" approx equals the Latin "ratio"); and eventually, as Greek philosophers used the term it came to represent not only an abstract principle, but a personification of the principle --a rational, creative force in its own right. ISOCRATES (436-338 BC) said: It was logos which enabled us to perfect almost everything we have achieved in the way of civilization. For it was this which laid down the standards of right and wrong, nobility and baseness, without which we should not be able to live together. . . . By its aid we educate the foolish and test the wise. . . With the help of logos we dispute over doubtful matters and investigate the unknown. . . . If we sum up the character of this power, we shall find that no significant thing is done anywhere without the power of logos, that logos is the leader of all actions and thoughts and that those who make the most use of it are the wisest of humanity. (Isocrates, Antidosis 253-257; cited by Kimball 1988) --Find out more about HERACLITUS.
(In Christian tradition, during Jesus lifetime , the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria (the "first Christian theologian") was working to explain Jewish thought in Greek terms; He used the term "Logos" (rather than the more traditional "wisdom") to represent the rational, creative aspect of Yahweh. AND, he often metaphorically referred to "Logos" as the "image of God" or the "Son of God." A less benign view of logos was held by philosophers called Gnostic philosophers --and some of their views influenced the early Christians who called themselves Gnostics. The Gnostic sect believed the divine, spiritual, unknowable principle of the universe was Gnosis, which is remote from the ordered, organized world of matter (they believed that the material world, being made of matter, was thereby somehow evil: ORDER was knowable, GOD was not!). The creative rationality of LOGOS was the view of JOHN when he was writing his gospel in Ephesus (the same city that Heraclitus used that same word --logos-- to refer to the rational structure of knowledge ("In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, John 1:1). John deliberately EQUATED GOD and LOGOS in direct contradiction to the GNOSTICS. LOGOS is thus the central rational principle about the accessibility of the laws of nature and god to the mind of man; the central theme of religion and Science as we know them in the West.
CREATION refers to something from nothing -- a "prerogative of the gods" [link to myths of creation]. Often in history, one could not be creative without acknowledging their debt to the sacred spirit within them, their "inspiration" or "enthusiasm."
COMPLEXITY: THE EDGE OF CHAOS
The Sate Fe Institute has a "web site with a section titled 'The edge of respectability'—echoing the phrase 'the edge of chaos,' coined by SFI physicist Doyne Farmer—which openly describes this position within the scientific community. Many complex systems, and perhaps the institute itself, the metaphor suggests, should be poised at a "critical" point between disorder and order, a region suggested to maximize information processing. This is itself one of the most interesting, yet controversial, concepts to have emerged from complexity research."
"... a complex system [is] 'a system in which large networks of components with no central control and simple rules of operation give rise to complex collective behavior, sophisticated information processing, and adaptation via learning or evolution.'"
from Science 23 April 2010 p430